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Osteoporosis – Bone Density Around the Lifespan


Because of many trendy advances in healthcare the previous century has noticed important will increase in existence expectancy. This reality, together with the growing old inhabitants we’ve in Australia, has subsequently additionally noticed will increase within the prevalence of well being prerequisites that basically have an effect on the older generations. One such situation is osteoporosis, and it’s precursor osteopenia. Osteoporosis is a illness by which the density and high quality of bone are diminished, resulting in weak point of the skeleton and higher chance of fracture, specifically of the backbone, wrist, hip, pelvis and higher arm. Osteoporosis, whilst a somewhat not unusual situation, is usually a silent illness, and will thus stay undetected till a fracture or fall happens (1,2). 

Osteoporosis Advent


In a gap observation in the latest osteoporosis burden of illness research, Chairman of Osteoporosis Australia John Hewson stresses the significance of consciousness and suitable control of osteoporosis when he states “Hundreds of thousands of Australians are suffering from deficient bone well being. Deficient bone well being prices the neighborhood and governments, and springs at a really perfect non-public value to these identified with osteoporosis or osteopenia and probably coping with debilitating fractures” (1). In keeping with the statistics published on this document within the yr 2012 4.74 million Australians over the age of fifty years have osteoporosis or deficient bone well being. This equates to 66% of all Australians over the age of fifty. Presently it used to be predicted that by means of 2022 6.2 million Australians over 50 years of age, would have osteoporosis or osteopenia, being a 31% building up from 2012.


The International Well being Organisation (WHO) defines osteoporosis and osteopenia relating to bone mineral density by means of imaging tactics similar to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The T-score refers to the usual deviation between a affected person’s bone mineral density (BMD) and that of a tender grownup within the reference inhabitants, and is used to categorise bone densities into customary, osteopenia or osteoporotic as in line with under.


Osteopenia and Osteoporosis are the graded classifications of a web state of ‘low bone density’. For the aim of ease of studying / writing, the remainder of this weblog will use the time period ‘osteoporosis’, then again please be aware that the next knowledge additionally applies to its precursor ‘osteopenia’. 

Possibility components for osteoporosis come with; 

  • Advancing age
  • Feminine intercourse
  • Low frame weight / frame mass index
  • Circle of relatives historical past 
  • Early menopause 
  • Sedentary way of life 
  • Over the top alcohol consumption 
  • Smoking 
  • Low calcium and/or nutrition D consumption
  • Insufficient solar publicity 
  • Anglo-saxon or Asian race 

Secondary osteoporosis is also the result of positive endocrine, metabolic or gastrointestinal issues (similar to hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, intentional malabsorption prerequisites, rheumatoid arthritis, renal failure), or long run use of positive medicines (together with corticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, anticoagulants, antidiabetic medicines).  (5,6). 


Osteoporosis is a systemic situation, that means its results are glaring globally throughout the frame. Nearly all fractures, irrespective of location or kind, are higher in the ones with low BMD. Adults who maintain an preliminary fracture (irrespective of space or kind) are therefore at a heightened chance (2-4 fold) of maintaining every other fracture, in a special space. Vertebral deformity is especially related to higher fracture chance, within the vertebrae or in a different way. Osteoporotic fractures can lead to prime morbidity, because of related ache, diminished mobility, lack of serve as and diminished high quality of existence (7). 

Bone Density Around the Lifespan

Amy Harding featured in Episode #278 of The Bodily Efficiency Display made the next observation; “Osteoporosis is a geriatric situation, but it surely’s in point of fact were given paediatric origins”. As Amy eloquently put, whilst osteoporosis manifests within the later years, bone enlargement and adulthood happens in the more youthful years. Osteoporosis is a big public well being fear international, subsequently preventative measures will have to be addressed lifelong so as to save you the illness. 

Bone consists of 2 primary compartments, by which bone remodelling happens; the periosteal (outer) floor and endocortical (interior) floor. Bone remodelling is a posh procedure, by which outdated bone is changed with new bone.  Bone consists of four other cellular varieties; osteoblast cells, which might be answerable for bone formation, osteoclasts, which resorb bone, osteocytes which might be mechanosensors and keep an eye on the bone remodelling procedure and bone lining cells. Periosteal osteocytes stumble on and reply to mechanical pressure, with formation of latest bone by means of quite a lot of molecular pathways. Wollf’s Regulation of bone remodelling states that wholesome bone tissue will adapt to the level of mechanical loading it’s positioned below, the place an building up in loading will lead to an building up in bone energy, and vice versa. Intercourse hormones (oestrogen, testosterone) have a vital affect at the serve as of the bone cells answerable for remodelling, and thus as hormone ranges exchange all over the life-span, we see marked age-related adjustments in bone densities around the lifespan (11, 13). 

The next graph demonstrates the adjustments in bone density all over the life-span:


Puberty – Younger Grownup 

Bone mass will increase ceaselessly via early life, and extra all of a sudden throughout early life, wherein >95% of the grownup skeleton is shaped by means of the top of early life. Research recommend that from the top of early life into the twenties, slight adjustments are made to bones, with top bone mass being reached between the mid-late twenties. Women folk have a tendency to succeed in a decrease top bone mass, and at an previous age than men (12). 

The stability of intercourse hormones in puberty are primary components within the building of bone form, dimension and geometry. Bone surfaces, whilst below the affect of intercourse hormones throughout the prepubertal to young-adult years, are extremely conscious of the mechanical lots generated by means of bodily task. Subsequently, throughout those the most important years, it’s crucial that bones are uncovered to all kinds of stimulating lots, with the function of accomplishing as prime a top bone mass as imaginable (12). 

30’s – 50’s 

From the 3rd decade onwards with every remodelling cycle we see a web relief in bone formation, leading to age-related bone loss, which continues at various charges for the remainder of the life-span. 


Oestrogen performs a big position in bone remodelling, and thus the lower in oestrogen ranges as ladies achieve menopause, triggers a length of marked bone loss. 

Remedy of Osteoporosis

Pharmacological Interventions

Low BMD on a DXA scan does indirectly represent the want to begin anti-osteoporosis pharmacological medication. A complete review is needed to decide the long-term fracture chance. This review may also remember a number of chance components in addition to DXA rankings. Pharmacological brokers are aimed for many who are already osteoporotic and at a prime chance of fracture, slightly than used as a preventative measure. Pharmacological brokers within the medication of osteoporosis purpose to both lower bone resorption (antiresorptives), subsequently leading to bone mass positive factors, or at once stimulate will increase in bone mass (anabolics) (5).

Underneath is a short lived evaluate of the key medicines utilized in osteoporosis medication. 


Bisphosphonates are compounds with anti-resorptive task, wherein they act to inhibit osteoclast activation. A number of formulations of bisphosphonates are to be had for control of osteoporosis (.e.g. oral or IV formulations), with quite a lot of dosing schedules. Not unusual bisphosphonates indexed at the PBS in Australia are Alendronate (logo title Fosamax), Risedronate (Actonel) and Zoledondrate (Zometa / Aclasta). Research have proven that bisphosphonates are efficient at expanding bone density and lowering vertebral fracture chance, then again just a few of them are efficient at lowering hip or different non-vertebral fracture chance. Gastrointestinal signs are rather a not unusual facet impact, and about 30% of sufferers enjoy a temporary flu-like syndrome after the primary IV dose. Unusual femoral pressure fractures were reported, related to long run bisphosphonate use, with an higher chance of 5 fractures in line with 10 000 affected person years. Osteonecrosis of the jaw is every other uncommon complication in sufferers handled long run with oral bisphosphonates, with an approximate chance of 1 in line with 10 000 – 250 000 sufferers (13). 

RANK Ligand Inhibitor

Denosumab is an antibody that inhibits a specific bone receptor, which leads to diminished bone resorption and subsequently higher bone density. Denosumab is indexed at the PBS for postmenopausal ladies who meet the standards for number one or secondary prevention. Denosumab (Australian logo names Prolia and Xgeva) is delivered subcutaneously (i.e. by means of injection). As with bisphosphonate utilization, denosumab utilization is related to an higher chance of abnormal femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Uncommon instances of anaphylaxis and extra gentle hypersensitive reactions have additionally been recorded. Research display that denosumab has a withdrawal impact, wherein within the 365 days following cessation of medication bone resorption markers are higher as much as 40-60% above pre-treatment ranges (15). As soon as commenced on denosumab medication compliance will have to be inspired to keep away from the bone loss that may happen if medication is ceased. 

Hormone Substitute Remedy 

Estrogen alternative remedy has been proven to extend bone mass, then again research would recommend that long-term opposed unintended effects can come with; building of breast most cancers, chance of cardiovascular occasions and thromboembolism. The Wholesome Bones Australia place observation (2023) states “advantages outweigh dangers when MHT is began <60 years of age or inside 10 years of menopause and in ladies with a hysterectomy…” (8). The literature would recommend that HRT stay an possibility for temporary use most effective. 

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a man-made compound that binds to estrogen receptors to inhibit bone resorption. Raloxifene is likely one of the SERM compounds, and has been proven to enhance bone density on the lumbar backbone and femoral neck, and scale back the prevalence of vertebral fractures. Whilst SERMs have a lesser affect on bettering bone density and lowering chance of fracture than estrogen alternative remedy, they don’t lift the similar chance of estrogen brought on breast most cancers. Then again, they do have a similar chance of cardiovascular occasions and thromboembolism as a facet impact because the estrogen alternative remedy (11). 

Parathyroid Hormone 

Teriparatide (Forteo or Terrosa) and Abaloparatide (Tymlos) are parathyroid hormone proteins, which act as anabolic brokers to stimulate and enhance bone formation. Research display that each compounds are efficient at stimulating bone formation, with an identical impact sizes between the 2 compounds. Total each compounds have a tendency to be neatly tolerated, with most effective gentle opposed results similar to nausea, dizziness, headache or palpitations. Hypercalcemia will also be related to each compounds, then again to a lesser level with Abaloparatide (17). 

Drugs Efficacy

In spite of adherence to drugs schedules, there are a share of sufferers who’re non-responders to the medicines, wherein they don’t see a lower in fracture chance at practice up issues. A learn about revealed in 2016 name ‘Percentage of Osteoporotic Ladies Closing at Possibility for Fracture In spite of Adherence to Oral Bisphosphonates’ discovered that 35% of the cohort replied sub-optimally to oral bisphosphonates regardless of adherence and didn’t see any enhancements in bone density (2). The non-response price varies between other classes and forms of medicines. 

For additional knowledge on osteoporosis medicines talk in your GP or Endocrinologist.

The Bodily Efficiency Display – Professor Peter Ebeling Episode #312

Non-Pharmacological Interventions

The Royal Australian School of Common Practitioners (RACGP) means that regimen medication of osteoporosis should come with addressing modifiable chance components. Versus the pharmacological interventions, the under way of life suggestions and interventions can and will have to be undertaken by means of all, to gradual the age-related decline in bone density and preferably save you the chance of osteoporosis onset. Remedy will have to subsequently come with recommendation to extend weight-bearing workout and energy coaching, keeping up a nutritious diet (together with good enough nutrition consumption), making sure protected ranges of solar publicity, and heading off smoking and over the top alcohol consumption (7). 


Calcium is likely one of the minerals that paperwork part of the bone mineral matrix, and is thus required for robust and wholesome bones, then again many Australians don’t reach good enough calcium consumption. The Australian nutritional calcium suggestions are as under;


One of the simplest ways to reach good enough calcium consumption is thru nutritional resources, similar to dairy merchandise, fish, legumes, and a few greens and culmination. The under desk outlines the calcium content material of positive meals; 


Whilst it’s ideally suited to reach good enough calcium consumption from nutritional resources, a few of these meals teams (e.g. dairy merchandise) is also poorly tolerated by means of some people and in those instances calcium dietary supplements is also of use. Wholesome Bones Australia recommends 500-600mg of calcium supplementation dose in line with day when required. For more info on making sure good enough calcium consumption from nutritional resources talk in your dietitian, or for info on calcium supplementation, talk in your GP or pharmacist. 

Diet D is a big regulator for calcium absorption, making it subsequently every other essential element of Osteoporosis prevention. Diet D is produced when pores and skin is uncovered to ultraviolet B gentle from the solar, then again it is very important stability the will for solar publicity with heading off over the top publicity leading to pores and skin injury. Most cancers Council Australia recommends solar coverage when outside within the solar within the UV Index is upper than 3. Solar publicity instances range relying on season, location and pores and skin kind. Wholesome Bones Australia has a sunshine map CLICK HERE and you’ll test the UV Index at the SunSmart app or Australian Bureau of Meteorology web page. 

Diet D ranges range all over the process the yr; a Diet D degree of fifty nmol/L is really helpful on the finish of wintry weather, with a better degree of 60-70 nmol/L throughout summer time. Round 30% of Australians have some degree of Diet D deficiency and in those instances Diet D supplementation is also used to extend ranges. Your physician would possibly check your Diet D ranges in case you are prone to a Diet D deficiency. 

The ones prone to Diet D deficiency come with;

  • Adults which can be principally indoors (e.g. because of well being or paintings)
  • Those that keep away from the solar or quilt their frame, because of pores and skin coverage, scientific recommendation, cultural or non secular causes 
  • Some scientific prerequisites can affect skill to soak up Diet D
  • Housebound people 
  • Naturally darkish skinned (darker pores and skin reduces UV gentle penetration)
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding ladies


Round 80-90% of Diet D consumption is received by means of good enough daylight publicity and the rest 10-20% from a restricted collection of meals, similar to oily fish, mushrooms and a few fortified dairy merchandise (9).

There are different nutritional issues, similar to making sure good enough protein consumption, in addition to good enough consumption of different Nutrients and minerals (similar to Diet C and Ok, potassium and magnesium), that experience implications for bone well being. 

For additional knowledge in regards to the nutritional issues of bone well being talk in your GP or Dietitian. 

CLICK HERE for POGO Physio Dietitian products and services:


Even though workout has many identified advantages, together with bettering and keeping up bone density, there may be an alarmingly low quantity of osteoporosis identified Australian’s exercising. Most up-to-date statistics within the RACGP Osteoporosis scientific tips (7) document that most effective 20% of Australians with osteoporosis document exercising maximum days and most effective 6% do energy coaching.

Whilst workout as an entire shows all kinds of advantages systemically, analysis has proven that in terms of bone well being, now not all workout is created equivalent. Bones get pleasure from an workout, when a certain quantity of pressure is put on them, that means that there are certain workout routines which can be maximum recommended, relying at the particular approach this is applies pressure to the bone. The particular forms of workout which can be maximum recommended come with; weight bearing affect loading workout and resistance coaching. The opposite attention is stability and falls prevention workout routines. Present knowledge means that 30% of adults over 65 years of age will enjoy no less than one fall in line with yr (8), and this quantity is expected to upward push as Australia’s inhabitants continues to age. 


Onero ™ is a supervised, evidence-based workout program run by means of ONERO Approved well being execs round Australia. The Onero ™ program is a prime depth resistance and affect workout program particularly designed for people with low bone mass to beef up bone and muscle.  

Whilst many sorts of workout will have refined advantages to bone, the upper depth workout carried out throughout the Onero ™ program were confirmed to be more practical. Onero ™ is an evidence-based program, advanced from the findings of the LIFTMOR Randomised Managed Trial, revealed within the Magazine of Bone Mineral Analysis in 2018 (10). The aim of the LIFTMOR trial used to be to decide the efficacy of prime depth resistance and affect coaching (HiRIT) on bone mineral density and bodily serve as is postmenopausal ladies with low bone mass. Members have been allotted to two medication teams; 1) HiRIT which consisted of 8 months of twice-weekly, 30 minute, supervised HiRIT, or 2) a keep an eye on crew which carried out a home-based, decrease depth workout program. Effects confirmed that in comparison to the keep an eye on crew, the HiRIT program used to be awesome for bone mass, femoral neck geometry and bodily serve as measures. Significantly, there have been no opposed occasions recorded, proving that HiRIT coaching is protected for postmenopausal ladies with low bone density (10). 

The Onero ™ program is obtainable at POGO Physio by means of Onero ™ Approved Practitioner Eliana Lonsdale. Previous to starting off the Onero ™ program an preliminary review should be finished to facilitate the variation of this system in your present bone and well being standing.

For more info at the Onero ™ program at POGO Physio CLICK HERE to guide your preliminary review with Eliana CLICK HERE

Podcast Hyperlinks: 

Belinda Beck    Amy Harding   Peter Ebeling




Eliana Lonsdale (APAM)
POGO Physiotherapist

Guide an appointment with Eliana as of late

Featured within the Most sensible 50 Bodily Remedy Weblog


  1. Osteoporosis Australia: Osteoporosis costing all Australians – A brand new burden of illness research – 2012 to 2022. 2012
  2. Imel, E., Eckert, G., Modi, A., Li, Z., Martin, J., Papp, A., . . . Liu, Z. (2015). Percentage of osteoporotic ladies last in danger for fracture regardless of adherence to oral bisphosphonates. Bone, 83. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2015.11.021
  3. Lorentzon, M., & Cummings, S. R. (2015). Osteoporosis: the evolution of a prognosis. Magazine of Interior Medication, 277(6), 650-661. doi:
  4. Sleeman, A., & Clements, J. N. (2019). Abaloparatide: A brand new pharmacological possibility for osteoporosis. American Magazine of Well being-Machine Pharmacy, 76(3), 130-135. doi:10.1093/ajhp/zxy022
  5. Bernabei, R., Martone, A. M., Ortolani, E., Landi, F., & Marzetti, E. (2014). Screening, prognosis and medication of osteoporosis: a short lived evaluate. Medical instances in mineral and bone metabolism : the reliable magazine of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Sicknesses, 11(3), 201–207.
  6. Michael P Jeremiah et al. Am Fam Doctor. (2015). Prognosis and Control of Osteoporosis. American Academy of Circle of relatives Physicians. 15;92(4):261-8.
  7. The Royal Australian School of Common Practitioners and Osteoporosis Australia. Osteoporosis prevention, prognosis and control in postmenopausal men and women over 50 years of age. 2d edn. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2017.
  8. Ebeling, PR., et. al., (2023). Place Commentary at the Control of Osteoporosis. Wholesome Bones Australia. Retrieved from
  9. Muñoz-Garach, A., García-Fontana, B., & Muñoz-Torres, M. (2020). Vitamins and Nutritional Patterns Associated with Osteoporosis. Vitamins, 12(7). doi:10.3390/nu12071986
  10. Watson, S., Weeks, B., Weis, L., Harding, A., Horan, S., & Beck, B. (2017). Top‐Depth Resistance and Have an effect on Coaching Improves Bone Mineral Density and Bodily Serve as in Postmenopausal Ladies With Osteopenia and Osteoporosis: The LIFTMOR Randomized Managed Trial. Magazine of Bone and Mineral Analysis, 33. doi:10.1002/jbmr.3284
  11. Bernabei, R., Martone, A. M., Ortolani, E., Landi, F., & Marzetti, E. (2014). Screening, prognosis and medication of osteoporosis: a short lived evaluate. Medical instances in mineral and bone metabolism : the reliable magazine of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Sicknesses, 11(3), 201–207.
  12. Lu, J., Shin, Y., Yen, M. S., & Solar, S. S. (2016). Height Bone Mass and Patterns of Trade in General Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Contents From Youth Into Younger Maturity. Magazine of scientific densitometry : the reliable magazine of the World Society for Medical Densitometry, 19(2), 180–191.
  13. Florencio-Silva, R., Sasso, G. R., Sasso-Cerri, E., Simões, M. J., & Cerri, P. S. (2015). Biology of Bone Tissue: Construction, Serve as, and Components That Affect Bone Cells. BioMed analysis global, 2015, 421746.
  14. Bell, S.J., Blacker, N., Edwards, S., Frank, O., Alderman, C. P., Karan, L., Husband, A., Rowett, D. (2012). Osteoporosis Pharmacological Prevention and Control in Older Other people. Australian Circle of relatives Doctor, Vol. 41, no. 3 
  15. Zaheer, S., LeBoff, M., & Lewiecki, E. M. (2015). Denosumab for the medication of osteoporosis. Skilled opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology, 11(3), 461–470. us about your injury



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